ASME Material Specification & Grades

ASME Material Specification and Grades for Pipes, Tubes, Forgings, Castings, Fittings, Valves, Nuts and Bolts

For the complete identity of a material we need two things; Material Specification  Material Grade For Example, In SA 106 Gr.B the “SA106” is the material specification, and “Gr.B” is the grade of the material. Please note that for a particular specification there may be more than one grade. For example, SA106 has three grades …

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ASTM A 36 STEEL

ASTM A 36 Steel – Mechanical & Chemical Properties and Equivalent Steel Grades

ASTM A 36 or SA 36 is basically carbon steel of structural quality which is widely used in industries. It is also known as Carbon Structural Steel. ASTM A 36 is readily available in the following product form; Plates Bars Shapes (beams, channels, angles, etc.)   In this article following topics will be covered; 1. …

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Mechanical Properties of Materials (1) (1) (1)

Mechanical Properties of Materials

The mechanical properties of the metals are those which are associated with the ability of the material to resist mechanical forces and loads. The topic of the mechanical properties of materials is of great industrial importance in the design of tools, machines, and structures. These properties are structure sensitive in the sense that they depend …

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KNUCKLE JOINT ASSEMBLED

Knuckle Joints

WHAT IS A KNUCKLE JOINT? A knuckle joint is a type of mechanical joint used to join two components that are loaded under tensile load. One has a fork with holes on either side, forming a double eye, while the other component has a Single eye. The single eye is inserted between double eyes so …

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Valve Terms Glossary

Glossary of Valve Terms

The commonly used terms and definitions related to valves is given below; Actual pressure drop: The difference between the inlet pressure and the outlet pressure of a valve. Actuator: A device used to open/close or control the valve. Key types include electrical, hydraulic, and pneumatic. Movement may be quarter-turn or multi-turn. Actuator stem: A rod …

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pressure safety valve

Pressure Safety Valve – What is a Valve (Part – 6)

Pressure Safety Valve / Relief Valve A safety valve is a valve that acts as a protection of equipment from exploding or damaging and it is mainly installed in pressure vessels such as chemical plants, electric power boilers, and gas storage tanks. Safety Relief Valve is a type of valve that automatically actuates when the …

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Aluminum and aluminum alloys

Aluminum and aluminum alloys

Introduction: Aluminum is found on the earth in its oxidized form known as Bauxite. Bauxite is refined to produce Alumina (Aluminium Oxide – Al2O3). Approximately 40% – 60% Alumina i.e. Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) can be extracted from Bauxite. The Hall-Héroult electrolysis process (invented in 1886) further processes Alumina (Aluminum Oxide-Al2O3) to separate it from oxygen. …

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low hydrogen welding electrodes

Low Hydrogen Electrodes

Low Hydrogen electrodes are very popular in the industries because of the following reasons; Ability to produce X-ray quality welds Good weld bead appearance Ability to weld thicker material with high deposition rates Less susceptible to failures and cracks especially Hydrogen Induced Cracks Sound weld metal properties with good toughness A smooth, stable and quiet …

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stainless steel welding

What is stainless steel

This article covers the following topics/questions; What is stainless steel? Types of stainless steel. Is stainless steel magnetic? Stainless steel welding and weldability. How to select the welding rod or filler wire? we will start this article with the first topic/question i.e what is stainless steel? WHAT IS STAINLESS STEEL? Stainless steels (SS) are essentially …

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underwater welding

Underwater Welding

Underwater welding is used for repairing ships, offshore structures including oil drilling rigs, and pipelines that are submerged in water. Taking out the damaged components from the sea for repair purposes is a costly and time-consuming task. Hence, to save time and money, underwater welding is preferred for the repair works (wherever possible) Russian metallurgist …

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Basics of heat treatment part 1

Basics of Heat Treatment for Metallic Material (Part-1)

Scope: In this article fundamentals of heat treatment will be discussed briefly mainly related to the “base material” of welded construction (metallic material) meant for industrial application. In Part-0, we had discussed the basics from a theory point of view generally taught in engineering colleges (Click here to read Part – 0). In the present …

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How to select welding electrodes

How to select welding electrodes

The selection of right welding electrodes is a quite challenging job because we need to consider many factors while choosing the best alternative. In this article, we will discuss the various factors responsible for choosing the right welding electrode for the Shielded Metal Arc welding Process (SMAW) for Carbon steels. The Shielded metal arc welding …

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How To Make Weld Map, Shop Weld Plan, WPS, PQR & WPQ for A Static Pressure Vessel (Part-3)

Scope: In part-2, of this article, we had discussed the sequence to be used for qualification of procedure (PQR) which needs to be approved by customer/client/TPI. (Please click here to read that article) Now we shall proceed for performance (welder) qualification i.e Welder performance qualification – WPQ or welder qualification test – WQT (which will …

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How To Make Weld Map, Shop Weld Plan, WPS, PQR & WPQ for A Static Pressure Vessel (Part-2)

Scope: In part-1 (Click here to read), of this article, we had discussed about the preparation and approval of the weld map, shop weld plan, and proposed welder list which needs to be submitted for the consent of the customer/client/TPI. In this article, we shall discuss the steps required for PQR qualification. In general, the …

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What is a Valve (Part – 1)

Introduction: Valves are mechanical devices, specifically designed to direct, start, stop, mix, or regulate the flow, pressure and temperature of process fluid. The need of Valve came after piping or plumbing. Plumbing dates back thousands of years in the civilization of human across globe. Valves can be found just about anywhere today, in our homes, …

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How To Make Weld Map, Shop Weld Plan, WPS, PQR & WPQ for A Static Pressure Vessel (Part-1)

Scope: This article will deal with step by step guide for the preparation of Weld Map, Shop Weld Plan, WPS, PQR & WPQ as per ASME SEC IX for a Static Pressure Vessel designed in accordance with ASME SEC VIII DIV I for non-lethal Service. The Reader must be wondering from where this requirement of …

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How to calculate heat input

Heat input is a critical parameter for arc welding processes and it must be controlled to ensure sound weld quality. Heat input may be defined as “The amount of electrical energy that is supplied to a weld during the welding process”. How to calculate Heat input? There are several ways of calculating the heat input. …

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