Sandeep Anand

I am a Mechanical Engineer with more than ten years of work experience in the field of welding and NDT.

What is a Valve (Part – 1)

Introduction: Valves are mechanical devices, specifically designed to direct, start, stop, mix, or regulate the flow, pressure and temperature of process fluid. The need of Valve came after piping or plumbing. Plumbing dates back thousands of years in the civilization of human across globe. Valves can be found just about anywhere today, in our homes,

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How To Make Weld Map, Shop Weld Plan, WPS, PQR & WPQ for A Static Pressure Vessel (Part-1)

Scope: This article will deal with step by step guide for the preparation of Weld Map, Shop Weld Plan, WPS, PQR & WPQ as per ASME SEC IX for a Static Pressure Vessel designed in accordance with ASME SEC VIII DIV I for non-lethal Service. The Reader must be wondering from where this requirement of

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How to calculate heat input

Heat input is a critical parameter for arc welding processes and it must be controlled to ensure sound weld quality. Heat input may be defined as “The amount of electrical energy that is supplied to a weld during the welding process”. How to calculate Heat input? There are several ways of calculating the heat input.

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Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)

Plasma arc welding (PAW) is an arc welding process in which the heat required for welding is generated by a constricted arc between a non-consumable electrode and the workpiece. Plasma Arc Welding is essentially an extension of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). Like GTAW, a non-consumable electrode is used in Plasma Arc Welding (PAW). However,

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Acceptance Criteria for Weld Defects

In this article, the weld defect acceptance/rejection criteria are given for the following tests/NDT; 1. Acceptance criteria for Visual Inspection 2. Acceptance criteria for Radiography Test (RT) 3. Acceptance criteria for Ultrasonic Test (UT) 4. Acceptance criteria for Liquid Penetrant Test (LPT/LPI/DPT) 5. Acceptance criteria for Magnetic Particle Test (MPI/MPT/MT) (This article covers the weld

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Summary of ASME BPVC Section IX – Part 1

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), Section IX contains qualification standard for the following; Welding, Brazing, and Fusing procedures Welders and welding operators Brazers and brazing operators Plastic fusing operators Section IX is a reference document for the qualification of material joining (welding, brazing, and plastic fusing) processes, used by various construction codes such

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Magnetic Particle Testing

Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) (also known as magnetic particle inspection – MPI) is a non destructive test (NDT) method, used to detect surface or subsurface (near to surface) discontinuities. This NDT method can be used on metals which can be easily magnetized (ferromagnetic). Metals can be classified as ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, or diamagnetic. Ferromagnetic metals: Ferromagnetic

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Thickness range for welder qualification and procedure qualification (ASME Section IX)

Thickness range for performance qualification (welder qualification test): ASME BPVC Section IX has provided guidelines for the thickness range up to which a welder can weld. This can be found in Table – QW 452.1(b) of ASME BPVC Section IX. A simplified version of that table is given below; According to this table, three important

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(SAW) Submerged Arc Welding

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) is an arc welding process in which arc is generated between a bare electrode and the workpiece. The arc and the molten weld pool are submerged in a blanket of granular fusible flux on the workpiece. Flux covers the arc and prevents fumes, sparks, spatter, and intense ultra violet radiation from

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(UT) Ultrasonic Test Basics

High frequency sound waves (frequency > 20000 HZ) also known as ultrasonic waves are introduced in a test object through a probe, these waves travel through the material on a predictable path. The waves are reflected at interfaces or other interruptions or discontinuity. The reflected waves are detected and then analysed for the possibility of

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Visual Inspection of Weld Joints

Visual examination of weld joint is an important activity, carried out to check the integrity and soundness of the weldment. It is an economical activity, as it doesn’t require any costly equipment. It must be carried out by a well experienced inspector. Main responsibilities of a welding inspector are: Code compliance Workmanship control Documentation Control

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How to write a Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)

A welding procedure specification (WPS) is a written document providing direction to the welder (or welding operator). It contains all the necessary parameters viz. joints, base metals, filler metals, positions, preheat, PWHT, gas etc. (including ranges, if any) under which the welding process must be performed. These parameters are known as variables (as per ASME

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Hydrotest Basics


Hydrotest a kind of pressure test in which the component being tested is filled completely with water or another liquid. Pressure, if required, is then applied to the liquid for the required time and the outside of the component is examined visually for leaks. Let us see, how the test from planning through execution is

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ASME Codes and Standards – A summary

Sections of ASME Boiler and Pressure vessel Codes (BPVC) The following list includes some of the most widely used Boiler and Pressure Vessel codes (BPVC) prepared and published by ASME. Section I……………………Rules for construction of Power Boilers Section II…………………..Materials Part A. Ferrous Material Specifications Part B. Nonferrous Material Specifications Part C. Specifications for Welding, Rods, Electrodes

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Welding Defects

Any discontinuity (or irregularity) in the weld metal, which exceeds the applicable code limit, is termed as a WELD DEFECT (or Welding Defect). Please note that a discontinuity can be called as a defect only when if it exceeds the specified code limit, hence we can say that every defect present in the weld metal

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Development Of Radiography Film

About radiography films: Radiography films are primarily made up of two things; 1. Base 2. Emulsion Base: Base is a transparent, flexible blue tinted object, usually made from a clear and flexible plastic such as cellulose acetate. It provides physical support to emulsion and does not participate in the image-forming process. It is not sensitive

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